Pasola is the name of a war game tournament played by two groups of selected Sumbanese men. They riding their decorated selected horses fling wooden spears at each other. (The government allows the ritual game to take place, but the spears much the blunt). Pasola is a traditional ceremony of the Sumbanese held in the way of uniquely and sympathically traditional norms, every year in February and March and has become the focus of attention of the people since it is a part of the sacred homoge to the Marapu.

Pasola is, above all, the most exciting ritual of Sumba-where else in the world can you see colorful horsemen trying to kill each other? Where else in the world can you see the shedding of blood, the lost of and eye, and occasional death coloring the event and being the part of the game?. The ceremony occurs during February in Lamboya and Kodi and during March in Gaura and Wanukaka. The main activity starts several days after the full-moon and coincide with the yearly arrival to the shore of strange, and multihued sea worms – nyale. The precise date of the event decided by Rato during the wula podu (the month of pasola the fasting month).
The Meaning And its Advantage

Pasola is derived from the world Sola or Hola meaning a kind of a long wooden stick used as a spear to fling each other by two opponent groups of horsemen. The horses used for this ritual are usually ridden by the brave and skilled selected men wearing traditional customes. In its wider and deeper meanings Pasola really not only is something worth looking on but also is something worth appreciating, for there are still other elements bound tightly behind it. The people of Sumba believe that the ritual has a very close link to the habit of the people since it arranges the behavior and the habit of the people so that the balanced condition between the physical – material needs and the mental-spiritual needs can be easily created; or in other words the ritual is believed to be able to crystallize the habit and the opinion of the people so that they can live happily both in earth and in heaven. In addition to it, Pasola is also believed to have close relation to the activity in agriculture field, therefore any bloodshed (of sacrificial cattle or men participating in the game) is considered the symbol of prosperity that must exist. Without blood Pasola means nothing to them. Those who die in the pasola arena are believed to have broken the law of tradition during the fasting month. Pasola that always takes risks, however, is accepted by the people in a very hospitable way and sportive.
The Origin and It’s Legend

It is said that thousand of years ago there were three brothers-one of them named Umbu Dula coming from a village called Waiwuang (now Wanukaka) intended to collect rice in the Village of Masu Karera, in the south coast of East Sumba. They, however, lied to the villagers that they wanted to go fishing. After a long time they had not returned, the villagers become so worried that they might have been stranded, lost, or even dead, so the villagers went to search for them, but in vain. Being lonely for a long time, Umbu Dula’s wife, Rambu Kaba, fell in love with Tedo Gai Parana, a man from Kodi, and decided to marry him. When finally the three brothers came back to Waiwuang, all the villagers greeted them with mixed feelings. Despite tje joy caused by the arrival of the three brothers, Umbu Dula began to feel sad to hear that his wife had escaped to Kodi with Tedo Gai Parana and that they had decided to get married and lived a happy life. The three brothers and the villagers then began to run after Rambu Kaba and her partner and found them on the foot of a hill. Seeing Umbu Dula among the people of Waiwuang, Rambu Kaba burst out crying but she being too ashamed refused to return to Waiwuang.

The relatives of Tedo Gai Parana, therefore, had to pay the bride price (dowries) to Umbu Dula in the form of buffaloes, horses, a set of ornaments, some spears, and swords, and a unique giff of sea – worms, called Nyale. Nyale usually, appears in February and March (several days after the full-moon). After the bride price ceremony the people of Kodi invited the Waiwuang to have a game of Pasola as remembrance of the event, so that the sorrow caused by the escaped of Rambu Kaba could be forgotten.
Since then the celebration of the time of nyale has been held with pasola games, and people connect the appearance of nyale with the harvest. The greater number of nyale appear, the more abundant harvest it will be. The pasola ceremony is usually preceded by several other rituals, done in fasting month Wula Nyale or Wula Podu such as self purification, Pajura (traditional boxing), the welcoming of nyale, which is done on the beach at dawn. These rituals are headed by ratos.

During the purification period there are a lot of prohibitions such as weeping for the died, striking gongs, wearing jingles ankles-bracellets, putting on bright dresses, killing animals, passing the pasola area, and crossing the river estuary. Affer the purification period the Pajura is held. Before the games starts the rato who leads the ritual makes an announcement of the game rules. After the announcement, to ratos throw their spears to start the game. This is immediately followed by hundreds of horse – riders racing their horses and while shouting throw their spears towards their opponents. Customarily, when someone is hurt the game will become more enthusiastic. After the games the participants return to their villages and are welcome as herois returning from the war. Then the thanksgiving ceremony is held by sacrificing castles no Marapu toask for fertile soil and bountiful harvest. This is pasola, a part of Sumbanese life; a life full of laughter and joy and hope for the bright future.

Sumba island has a great and unique position respect to the Sunda Banda archipelagoes, it is one of the biggest island on the East Nusa Tenggara region beside Flores and Timor. It represents an isolated sliver of probable continental crust to the south of active volcanic islands (Sumbawa, Flores ) within the forearc basin (Fig.1). It is situated to the north of passage from the Java Trench (subduction front) to the Timor Through (collision front). It does not show still the effects of strong compression in contrast to islands of the outer arc system (Savu, Roti, Timor), while the magmatic units make up a substantial part of the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene stratigraphy.
Sumba island covers an area of 11,150 square km which is now populated by about 350,000 people. Generally the climate similar to other part of Indonesia where a dry season (May to November), and a rainy season (December to April). The island of Sumba is well known of its sandlewood, horses, impressive megalithic tombs, typical hand woven textile (“ikat”), and still untouched beautiful beaches. There are two entering point in to Sumba island from anywhere in the Lesser Waingapu & Waikabubak (Tambolaka). These are the people could enter

Sumba has a unique culture and their social life. Sumbanese are traditionally divided into three level of social life : (Raja/King) – Maramba, Customary Official – Kabihu, and Slaves – Ata. Sumbanese are living from farming, cattle breeding, rice-field farming and trading. Ones owns cattle will contribute to their social status such as if they had more cattle giving them a higher social status.
Most Sumbanese are Christian (Catholic and Protestant), however, and part of them are still strongly keep their native and original religion called Marapu. Most cultural objects are related to the Marapu religion such as the shape of traditional houses, ceremonies, or kings’ graves and tombs.
The Customary houses designed in high-peaked roof to store the heirlooms and store. It is divided into male and female section, and generally surrounded by impressive megalithic tombs. Their famous ceremony are the wedding and funerals. where they usually sacrificed animals pigs, buffaloes, cattle, and horses.
The Megalithic tombs are made from the hard stone forming the megalithic shape. This covered by rectangle flat stone supported by four pillars about 1,5 meters high. The Megalithic tombs are actually located in the front of their houses
A primitive Sumbanese art objects strongly related with a social functions of Merapu belief. The carved stones and wood statues are representing the death, Merapu, and as medium for their contact. Metal ornaments and jewelry are usually for wedding ceremonies, and are related to the social status
Sumba Island has a unique position with respect to the Sunda-Banda arc as it represents an isolated sliver of probable continental crust to the south of active volcanic islands (Sumbawa, Flores ) within the forearc basin (Fig.1). It is situated to the north of passage from the Java Trench (subduction front) to the Timor Through (collision front). It does not show still the effects of strong compression in contrast to islands of the outer arc system (Savu, Roti, Timor), while the magmatic units make up a substantial part of the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene stratigraphy.
Bathymetrically, Sumba stands out as a ridge that separates the Savu forearc basin (> 3000 m depth) in the east and the Lombok forearc basin (> 4000 m depth) in the west. Seismic refraction studies show (Barber et al., 1981) that it is made up of 24 km thick continental crust (Chamalaun et al., 1981). Based on the results of tectonic studies helped by paleomagnetism and geochemistry, several workers considered Sumba as a microcontinent or a continental fragment (Hamilton, 1979 ; Chamalaun and Sunata, 1982 ; Wensink, 1994, 1997 ; Vroon et al., 1996 ; Soeria-Atmadja et al., 1998 ).

Three main geodynamic models for Sumba have been reviewed by Chamalaun et al. (1982) and Wensink (1994) as follows : (i) Sumba was originally a part of the Australian Continent which was detached afterwards when the Wharton basin was formed, drifted northwards and subsequently trapped behind the eastern Java Trench (Audley-Charles, 1975 ; Otofuji et al., 1981), (ii) Sumba was once part of Sundaland which was drifted southwards during the opening of the Flores Basin (Hamilton,1979, Von der Borch et al., 1983 ; Rangin et al., 1990) and (iii) Sumba was either a microcontinent or part of a larger continent within the Tethys, which later was fragmented (Chamalaun and Sunata, 1982).
Three distinct calc-alkaline magmatic episodes have been recorded during Cretaceous – Paleogene, all of them characterized by nearly similar rock assemblages (i.e pyroclastic rocks, basaltic – andesitic lava flows and granodioritic intrusions). They are respectively (i) the Santonian – Campanian episode (86-77 Ma) represented by volcanic and plutonic rock exposures in the Masu Complex from Eastern Sumba, (ii) the Maastrichtian-Thanetian episode (71-56 Ma) represented by the volcanic and plutonic units of Sendikari Bay, Tengairi Bay and the Tanadaro Complex in Central Sumba and finally (iii) the Lutetian – Rupelian episode (42-31 Ma) of which the products are exposed at Lamboya and Jawila in western part of Sumba. No evidence of Neogene magmatic activity has been recorded so far.